A. BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH
Literature is always becoming a fertile field to be studied and analyzed, because a literary work is a mirror of human life, social, moral, culture, knowledge, principle, ideology, life philosophy, creating essence, religion etc. By the literature, a culture of the nation can be discovered, but on the other hand, a literature also can be studied from the daily and habitual activities of society. Both of them are cannot be separated each other. Thus, as long as this world is still running on and the people breathing, a literature work will always exist, live and develop in accordance to both the situation and the condition wherever it are.
The terminology of literature etymologically taken from Latin; Litera means the writing or the alphabets. Literature itself arose in
A literature could appreciate with tree elements; First, Expression that is, feeling which described through words that are in orderly arranged. Second, feeling which is describing the material or theme of the literature, such as the feeling of love, hatred, enjoyment, sad etc. Third, rule of the literature itself, it means a literature has to be a literary work that accepted by mostly people in society (convention).
Such as William Shakespeare in his era, his work was not easily accepted as a literary work at that time, it was only considered as a punk fiction. Then after this work passed several periods in
Generally, literary work divided into several genres: Poem, drama and Prose. Novel - which is becoming the object of this research – is sub-genre of prose. Novel appeared in the world literature later on than heroism poem, epic, and drama, and it all becomes the last at once. Nevertheless, novel is a literary works which more flexible and has a bit rules in the literature critics. The simplicity of novel brings it so fast to be the foremost literary work of this age.
Novel does not only need a character and plot, but also it needs also an artistic language with an absolute present. A novelist able to arrange the incidents according to the plot by locating all actors in the certain place at once that reader feels like in the real life where they have a strong feeling with the actors.
According to Virginia Wolf such as quoted by Henry Guntur Tarigan, Novel is an exploration or chronic of life, thinking and describing in the special form, influence, unity, achievement, destruction, and description of human activities.
A novel with its freedom and unbounded to the specific rule come to the modern era faster then others. These things push the novelist to create literary works more creative and productive. Finally, many novels launch and flood literary world, and become the biggest literary work in quantity and the most favorite literary work to the readers around the world.
One of the novels, which mostly read around the world, is The Alchemist written by Paolo Coelho, a Brazilian novelist who has written many best sellers novels that are full of inspiration. The alchemist is one of his novels that most wellknown, because it contains thoughts and wisdoms inspiring people of any country.
The theme that extremely appeals in this novel is descriptions and messages of the human essence. The Alchemist explained that destiny is the big liar, because they are who unable to pick up their own destinies, they always avoid and said to themselves and others that when we could not make it real what we dream of, that is our fate. Moreover, according to this novel, a destiny is what we always wanted to accomplish, and everyone when they are young, knows what their destinies are. So, the only one that should be done is not only sitting and doing nothing but also creating the destiny. Because, if someone becomes closer and closer to create their destinies, it would become a great reason what for they live.
Actually, a man has a power to bring his destiny into reality, but they always encounter two difficult choices, which in the end will trap him to the incorrect choice or in the other word is fail. The two difficult choices are first, choosing to live where he is to be, means a life that he undergoes as usual with all achievements and privileges they reached. Second, something that he wants to yearn, that is a dream, desires, destiny, which must be reached with sacrifice.
The Alchemist also introduces the third instrument to get knowledge that is intuition. Some civilizations and western scientists do not accepted it as an epistemological instrument besides brain and five senses. However, The Alchemist emphasizes that intuition has function that is more essential than other instruments in the epistemological realm. This novel describes that intuition is a sudden immersion of the soul in the universal current of life, where the history of all people connected, because it has been written there.
Man is the culmination of evolution from things do not live, move, reproduce, and which end in the rational man who lives, moves and reproduces. In addition, in the same time he becomes the closest creature to “hand who writes every single of thing”. Furthermore, this novel explores about the essence of man. The man is the wind, the desert, the ocean, the stars and everything created in the universe. The human is the representation of creating microcosm, in the human’s inside, it can be found all aspect of the dead thing and the living thing created by God, such as the material aspect, the plant aspect, the animal aspect, and the most essential is the human aspect, that is to say that human is microcosm.
Western scientists mostly prior rationalism and empiricism. The both view that human are only animal which has a specification such as ability of think without viewing its supra-rational aspects. Modern sciences also view that stones, plants, sun, water, wind, fire, and land as the objects that have not soul.
This novel explores – unless gives the good information- that every part of creature in this world has a soul, like a stone, animal, sun, land, water, and so on. However, every single of the object in this universe always transform, because universe including this earth are alive and have a soul.
It is based on the explanation above, the writer thinks that a theme of human essence, which becomes the core of the messages pointed in the novel, it is going to be very interesting to be analyzed, discussed, and studied in the midst of human metaphysic bareness in the west literary world.
B. FOCUS OF THE RESEARCH
In accordance to the previous exploration, the writer only focuses on the philosophical thought of the essence of human concept. Via the philosophical thought, the writer will identify man’s free will, man as microcosm and theomorphic creature. Accordingly, the other thoughts or messages are only become proponent for supporting the main theme.
C. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To make more convenient ad simply in analyzing the novel, the writer focuses on the content of the novel which dealing with the philosophical thought of man essence and construct it into the following question:
1. How does The Alchemist describe a man as a microcosm?
2. How does The Alchemist describe a man comparing to the theomorphic?
3. As a creature, is man blessed free will or pre-destination?
D. SIGNIFICANT OF THE RESEARCH
The writer expects achievements of the research will uncover the true meaning and give the right understanding of human concept with both its simplicity and its complexity. Because, human are the most perfect creature of God that all mat aspect of creature, even God includes in him.
The writer also wants to present knowledge for those who interested in discussing literature and philosophy, especially human philosophy that encompasses all evolution types of God’s creature.
E. METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH
1. Objectives of the Research
The research is conducted to achieve purposes as the following:
1) Knowing human concept as a microcosm
2) Knowing the essence of human with their theomorphic
3) Knowing human’s concept of freedom (vis a vis God’s will)
2. Method of the Research
The research applies the descriptive-qualitative method. In this research The writer uses the content analysis. In literature field, it includes the understanding of works from the extrinsic aspects perspective. The aspects of the outside are discussed and explored deeply to know the objective of content analysis that is especially connecting with religious values and historical values. So that, the researcher can applies the content analysis when he is going to reveal the content of particular values of literary works. It due to the several views of that brilliant literary work is a work ought to reflect positive messages to its readers. Even though the dialectic of literary work often lifts up the black sides of the lives as a comparison, so the researcher will not be trapped in the troubles of black or white values. At the substantial, the messages that consisted are understood throughout. The substances of literary work have the magnificent meaning which in the form of symbols. The duty of the content analysis is to neutralize and uncover the symbols hidden in the literary work. It means, the more genius author on plying symbols of esthetic, the more challenging research will be conducted.
Although, the content analysis is running with the substance, it does not mean the aspects of literature should be neglected. The content analysis remains in good treatment of the literary work as the art, in spite of quoting the values to reinforce the message revelation. The essential aspect of the content analysis is how the achievement of analysis can be benefited by whoever needs the meanings, messages and values. The messages of literary works ought to be associated with any community that practice and use the result of the research.
3. Technique of Data Analysis
The writer attempts describing The Alchemist with the following steps; 1) the writer read the novel accurately 2) noting the contents or messages that deal with the research data 3) concerning to the philosophical messages inside the novel that become core of the data 4) the dealt data are analyzed by correlating it with the contexts and the relevant theories.
4. Unit of Analysis
The unit analysis of the research is The Alchemist, a novel which is written by Paolo Coelho.
 Yosep Yapi Taum, Pengantar Teori Sastra, (Flores: Nusa Indah, 1997) p.11
 Rene Wellek & Austin Warner, Theory of Literature, (
 Andrew sanders, The Oxford History of English Literature, (
 Henry Guntur Tarigan, Prinsip-Prinsip Dasar Sastra, (Bandung: Angkasa, 1993), p. 164
 Murtadla Muthahhari, Man and Universe, (Qum: Insanian Publications, 1997) p. 4
 Alexis Carrel, Misteri Manusia, (Bandung: Remadja Karya, 1987) p. 173
 Suwardi Endraswara, Metodologi Penelitian Sastra: Epistemologi, Model, Teori dan aplikasi, (Yokyakarta: Pustaka Widyatama, 2003) p. 160
 Ibid. p. 161
 Ibid. p. 162